• The Ergometer for Pros - Performance diagnostics and training on your own bike

  • The Ergometer for Pros - Performance diagnostics and training on your own bike


With a proven track record in publications, Cyclus2 has established a gold standard in performance and clinical research for universities, hospitals and professional cycling teams. Please see below selected Cyclus2 publications including ergometer specific validity/reliability research, research integrating the Cyclus2 ergometer into testing/training protocols and other experimental research.


AuthorsPublication DateTitleJournalLink
Sanders, D., Myers, T., Akubat, I. 2017Training Intensity Distribution in Road Cyclists: Objective Versus Subjective MeasuresInt J Sports Physiol Perform; 0(0):1-20 Abstract
Gratkowski, M., Storzer, L., Butz, M., Schnitzler, A., Saupe, D., Dalal, S.S. 2017BrainCycles: Experimental setup for the combined measurement of cortical and subcortical activity in Parkinson's disease patients during cycling Frontiersin Human Neuroscience, Full
Thomas, F., Pretty, C.G, Signal, M., Shaw, G., Chase, J.G. 2017Accuracy and performance of continuous glucose monitors in athletes Biomed Signal Process Control Abstract
Hebisz, R., Hebisz, P., Zatoń, M., Michalik, K. 2016Peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol vs. maximal oxygen uptake in an incremental testing protocol and their relationship with cross-country mountain biking performance Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 10.1139/apnm-2016-0362 Abstract
Marquet, L.A., Hausswirth, C., Molle, O., Hawley, J.A., Burke, L.M., Tiollier, E., Brisswalter, J. 2016Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance Nutrients (2016); 8(12), 755Full
Meurrens, J., Steiner, T., Ponette, J., Janssen, H.A., Ramaekers, M., Wehrlin, J.P., Vandekerckhove, P., Deldicue, L. 2016Effect of Repeated Whole Blood Donations on Aerobic Capacity and Hemoglobin Mass in Moderately Trained Male Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial Int JSports Med (2016); 2:43 Abstract
Sanders, D., Grant, A., Hesselink, M.K., Myers, T., Akubat, I. 2016Methods of monitoring training load and their relationships to changes in fitness and performance in competetive road cyclistsInt J Sports Physiol Perform (2016) Full
Ludwig, M., Grohganz, H.G., Asteroth, A. 2016A Convolution Model for Heart Rate Prediction in Physical Exercise "activicSPORTS: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support (icSPORTS 2016), pages 157-164 ISBN: 978-989-758-205-9" Full
Poprzęcki, S., Czuba, M., Zając, A., Karpiński, J., Wilk, R, Bril, G., Maszczyk, A., Toborek, M. 2016The blood antioxidant defence capacity during intermittent hypoxic training in elite swimmersBiol. Sport (2016) 33:353-360Full
Egger, F., Meyer, T., Hecksteden, A.2016Interindividual Variation in the Relationship of Different Intensity Markers—A Challenge for Targeted Training PrescriptionsPLoS One (2016) 27;11(10)Full
Fischer, H., Weber, D., Beneke, R. 2016A Neuromuscular Fitted Dental Splint Does Not Improve Sprint PerformanceInt J Int J Sports Physiol Perform (2016) 24:1-11 Abstract
Cheng, C.F., Hsu, W.C., Kuo, Y.H., Shih, M., Lee, C.L.2016Caffeine ingestion improves power output decrement during 3-min all-out exerciseEur J Appl Physiol (2016) 116:1693–1702Abstract
Hebisz, P., Hebisz, R., Zaton, M., Ochmann, B., Mielnik, N. 2016Concomitant application of sprint and high‑intensity intervalEur J Appl Physiol (2016) 116:1495–1502Abstract
Giboin,L.S., Thumm, P., Bertschinger, R., Gruber, M.2016Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic StimulationFront Behav Neurosci. 10: 150Abstract
Rannama, I., Pedak, K., Reinpõld,K., Port. K.2016Pedalling Technique and Postural Stability during incremental cycling exercise – Relationship with cycling FMSTM scoreLase Journal of Sport Science 2016/7/1Full
Hoekstra, S., Valent, L., Gobets, D., van der Woude, L., de Groot, S.2016Effects of four-month handbike training under free-living conditions on physical fitness and health in wheelchair usersDisabil Rehabil. 2016 Jul 6:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]Abstract
DeSmet, S., Van Thienen, R., Deldicque, L., James, r., Sale, c., Bishop, D., Hespel, P.2016Nitrate Intake Promotes Shift in Muscle Fiber Type Composition during Sprint Interval Training in HypoxiaFrontiers in Physiology 7Abstract
Hammes, D., Skorski, S., Schwindling, S., Ferrauti, A., Pfeiffer, M., Kellmann, ., Meyer, T. 2016Can the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test Indicate Fatigue and Recovery in Trained Cyclists?Int J of Sports Physiol Perfor 11(3):328-336Abstract
Simola, R.A.P, Raeder, C., Wiewelhove, T., Kellmann, M., Meyer, T., Pfeiffer, M., Ferrau, A.2016Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive trainingJ Electromyogr KinesiolAbstract
Strasser B, Geiger D, Schauer M, Gatterer H, Burtscher M, Fuchs D.2016Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained AthletesJ PLoS One. 2016 Apr 28;11(4):e0153617.Full
Storzer, L.,  Butz,M., Hirschmann, J., Abbasi, O., Gratkowski,M.,Saupe D., , Schnitzler,A., Dalal, S.S. 2016Bicycling and Walking are Associated with Different Cortical Oscillatory DynamicsFront Hum Neurosci. 2016; 10: 61Full
Saugy, J.J., Schmitt, L., Hauser, A., Constantin, G., Cejuela, R., Faiss, R., Wehrlin, J.P., Rosset, J., Robinson, N., Millet, G.P2016Same Performance Changes after Live High-Train Low in Normobaric vs. Hypobaric HypoxiaFront. Physiol., 19 April 2016Full
Rannama, I., Port, K.2016Bilateral biomechanical asymmetry during 30 seconds isokinetic spring cycling exerciseJ Lase J Sport Sci 3-16Full
Stanula A, Gabryś T, Roczniok R, Szmatlan-Gabryś U, Ozimek M, Mostowik A.2016Quantification of the demand during an ice-hockey game based on the intensity zones determined from the incremental test outcomeJ Strength Cond Res 30(1): 176-183Abstract
Schmit C., Le Nur Y., Duffield R., Robach R., Oussedik N., Coutss A.J., Hausswirth C. 2015Heat-acclimatization and pre-cooling: a further boost for endurance perfomance?J Scand J Med Sci Sports doi: 10.1111/sms.12629. [Epub ahead of print]Abstract
Quintana-Duque J.-C., Dahmen T., Saupe, D.2015Estimation of torque variation from pedal motion in cycling J Int J Comp Sci Sport 14(1): 34-50Full
Lenka, Kovárová; David, Pánek; Karel, Kovár; Zdenek, Hlincík2015Relationship between subjectively perceived exertion and objective loading in trained athletes and non-athletesJ Phys Ed Sport 15(2):186-193Abstract
Zeller S., Abel T., Smith PM., Strueder HK.2015Influence of noncircular chainring on male physiological parameters in hand cyclingJ Rehabil Res Dev. 52(2):211-20Abstract
Masschelein, E., Puype, J., Broos, S., Van Thienen, R., Deldicque, L., Lambrechts, D., Hespel, P., Thomis, M.2015A Genetic Predisposition Score Associates with Reduced Aerobic Capacity in Response to Acute Normobaric Hypoxia in LowlandersHigh Alt Med Biol. 16(1):34-42Abstract
Drescher, U., Koschate, J., Hoffmann, U.2015Oxygen uptake and heart rate kinetics during dynamic upper and lower body exercise: an investigation by time-series analysisEur J Appl Physiol [Epub ahead of print]Abstract
Van Thienen, R, D'Hulst, G., Deldicque, L, Hespel, P2014Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same muscleJ Physiol Rep. 2(5): e00286Abstract
Rannama, I., Port, K., Bazanov, B., Pedak, K. 2014Sprint cycling performance and asymmetryJ HUMAN SPORT & EXERCISE 10(Proc1), S251Full
Van Thienen R, D'Hulst G, Deldicque L, Hespel P.2014No effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on endurance training in hypoxiaScand J Med Sci Sports. 25(2):234-241Abstract
Born DP, Zinner C, Herlitz B, Richter K, Holmberg HC, Sperlich B.2014Muscle oxygenation asymmetry in ice speed skaters: not compensated by compressionInt J Sports Physiol Perform 9(1):58-67Abstract
Puype J, Ramaekers M, Van Thienen R, Deldicque L, Hespel P.2014Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same musclePhysiol Rep. 12;2(5):DOI: 10.14814/phy2.286Abstract
James, R.M., Cooper, S.B., Robertson, J., Martin, D., Harris, R.C., Sale, C. 2014Effect of β-alanine supplementation on 20 km cycling time trial performanceInt J Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte 25(3)Abstract
Marschall, F., Ferger, K., Mueller, H.2014Biological Variability in Submaximal Parameters of Performance and StrainInt J J Ex Phys 17(4): 102-112Full Text
Nimmerichter A, Holdhaus J, Mehnen L, Vidotto C, Loidl M, Barker AR.2014Biochemical artifacts in experiments involving repeated biopsies in the same muscleInt J Biometeorol. 58(7):1503-1512Abstract
Stanula, A., Rocznik, R.2014Game Intensity Analysis of Elite Adolescent Ice Hockey PlayersJ Hum Kinet 30(440);211-221Abstract
De Groot, S., Postma, K., van Vliet, L., Timmermans, R., Valent, L.J.M.2014Mountain time trial in handcycling: exercise intensity and predictors of race time in people with spinal cord injuryJSpinal Cord 52, 455–461Abstract
Stanula, A., Rocznik, R., Maszczyk, A., Pietraszewski, R., Zajac, A.2014The role of aerobic capacity in high-intenstiy intermittend efforts in ice-hockeyBiol Sport 31(3): 193–199Abstract
Karsten, B., Peterson, A., Champion, M.2014Comparison of physiological and perceptual responses to a maximal exhaustive test performed on the SRM and the Cyclus2 ergometerJ Sci Cycling Vol 3 (2): 83-84Abstract
Viker T, Richardson MX.2013Shoe cleat position during cycling and its effect on subsequent running performance in triathletesJJ Sports Sci. 31(9):1007-1014Abstract
Puype, J., Van Proeyen, K., Raymackers, J-M., Deldicque, L., Hespel, P.2013Sprint Interval Training in Hypoxia Stimulates Gycolyctic Enzyme Activity Med Sci Sports Exerc 45(11): 2166-2174Abstract
Wahl, P., Zinner, C., Grosskopf, C., Rossmann, R., Bloch W., Mester, J.2013Passive Recovery is superior to Active Recovery during a high-intensity shock microcycleJJ Strength Cond Res 27(5): 1394-1393Abstract
Koch, M., Froehlich, M., Emrich, E., Urhausen, A.2013The impact of carbon insoles in cycling on performance in the Wingate Anaerobic TestJ Sci Cycling 2(2)Abstract
Rocznik, R., Maszcyk, A., Czuba, M., Stanula, A., Pietraszewski, R., Gabrys, T.2012The Predictive Value of On-Ice Special Tests in Relation to Various Indexes of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Ice Hockey PlayersHuman Movement 13, (1): 28–32Full text
Lee, C.L., Lin, JC., Cheng, CF.2012Effect of creatine plus caffeine supplements on time to exhaustion during an incremental maximum exerciseEur J Sports Sci 14(4):338-346Abstract
Masschelein, E., Van Thienen, R., Wang, X., Van Schepdael, A., Thomis, M., Hespel, P.2012Dietary nitrate improves muscle but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in hypoxiaJ Appl Physiol 113:736-745Full text
Rannama, I., Bazanov, B., Baskin, K., Zilmer, K., Rossalu, M., Port, K.2012Isokinetic muscle strength and short term cycling power of road cyclistsJ Human Sports Exc 8(2):S19-S29Full text
Rannama, I., Port, K., Bazanov, B.2012Does limited gear ratio driven higher training cadence in junior cycling reflect in maximum effort sprint?J Human Sports Exc 7 (1):S85-S90Full text
Kromer P., Hirschmüller A., Dickhuth HH., Gollhofer A., Röcker K.2011Performance Diagnostic in Handcycling: The Influence of Cycling Cadence on Different Reference Points of the Lactate Power CurveDeutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin 62(1) Full Text
Siebenmann C, Bloch KE, Lundby C, Nussbamer-Ochsner Y, Schoeb M, Maggiorini M.2011Dexamethasone improves maximal exercise capacity of individuals susceptible to high altitude pulmonary edema at 4559 mHigh Alt Med Biol. 12(2):169-177Full Text
Latshang, T.D., Turk, A.J., Hess, T., Schoch, O.D., Bosch, M.M., Barthelmes, D., Merz, T.M., Hefti, U., Pcihler Hefti, J., Maggiorini, M., Bloch, K.E. 2011Acclimatization improves submaximal exercise economy at 5533 mScand J Med Sci Sports 23(4):458-467Abstract
Dahmen, T., Saupe, D.2011Calibration of a power-velocity model for road cycling using real power and height dataInt J Comp Sci SportFull Text
Brümmer, V., Schneider, S., Abel, T., Vogt, T., Strüder, H.-K.2011 Brain cortical activity is influenced by exercise mode and intensity. Med Sci Sports Exerc.  43(10):1863-72 Abstract
Ching-Feng, C., Tong, T.K., Kuo Y-C., Chen P-H., Huang H-W., Lee C-L.2011Inspiratory muscle warm-up attenuates muscle deoxygenation during cycling exercise in women athletesRespir Physiol Neurobiol 186(3):296-302Abstract
Dahmen, T., Saupe, D.2011Simulation and optimization of race-bike training on real tracksInt J Comp Sci Sport 10(2):18-36Full text
Dahmen, T., Byshko, R., Saupe, D., Roeder, M., Mantler, S.2011Validation of a Model and a Simulator for Road Cycling on Real TracksSports Eng 14:95-110Full text
Pischel, I., Van Proeyen, K., Hespel, P.2011Effect of OpunDiaTM (O. ficus-indica extract) on oral glucose tolerance and plasma insulin before and after exercisePoster Presentation: Proccedings of the eights International Society of Sports Nutrition ConferenceFull text
Schulte, S., Schiffer, T., Sperlich, B., Kleinoeder, H., Holmberg, HC.2011Serum Concentrations of S100B are not Affected by Cycling to Exhaustion With or Without VibrationJ Human Kinet 30:59-63Abstract
Van Proeyen, K., Szlufcik, K., Nielsen, H., Ramaekers, M., Hespel, P.2011Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted stateJ Appl Physiol 110(1):236-245Abstract
Van Proeyen, K., Szlufcik, K., Nielsen, H., Deldicque, L., Van Dyck, R., Ramaekers, M., Hespel, P.2011High-fat diet overrules the effects of training on fiber-specific intramyocellular lipid utilization during exerciseJ Appl Physiol 111(1):108-116Abstract
Sperlich, B., Zelle, S., Kleinoeder, H., Lochmann, M., Zinner, C., Holmberg, HC., Mester, J.2011The effects of 6-week-decoupled bi-pedal cycling on submaximal and high intensity performance in competitive cyclists and triathletesEur J appl Physiol 111(8):1625-1630Abstract
Koninckx, E., Van Leemputte M., Hespel, P.2010Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.Eur J Appl Physiol 109(4):699-708Abstract
Psilander, N., Wang, L., Westergren, J., Tonkonogi, M., Sahlin, K.2010Mitochondrial gene expression in elite cyclists: effects of high-intensity interval exerciseEur J Appl Physiol 110(3):597-606Abstract
Vries., ST., van Enst, GC., Breeman, A., van't Hof, AWJ.2010Effects of altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controlsNeth Heart J 18(3):118-121Abstract
Van Proeyen, K., Szlufcik, K., Nielsen, H., Pelgrim, K., Deldicque, L., Hesselink, M., Van Veldhoven, PP., Hespel, P.2010Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich dietJ Physiol 588(Pt21):4289-43302Abstract
Van Thienen, R., Van Proeyen, K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype., J., Lefere, T., Hespel, P. 2009β-Alanine Improves Sprint Performance in Endurance Cycling Med. Sci. Sports Exerc 41(4):898-903 Full text
Faude, O., Meyer, T., Urhausen, A., Kinderman., W.2009Recovery training in cyclists: ergometric, hormonal and psychometric findingsScand J Med Sci Sports 19:433-441Abstract
Sperlich, B., Kleinöder, H., De Marées, M., Quarz, D., Linville, J., Haegele, M., Mester, J.2009Physiological and Perceptual Responses of adding Vibration to CyclingJ Ex Phys 12(2):40-46Full text
De Bock, K., Derave, W., Eijnde, B.O., Hesselink, M.K., Koninckx, E., Rose, A.j., Schrauwen, P., Bonen, R., Richter, E.A., Hespel, P.2008Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intakeJ Appl Physiol 104:1045-1055Abstract
Koninckx, E., Van Leemputte M., Hespel, P.2008Effect of a novel pedal design on maximal power output and mechanical efficiency in well-trained cyclistsJ Sports Sci 26(10):1015-1023Abstract
Rojas Vega, S., Abel, T., Lindschulten, R., Hollmann, W., Bloch, W., Strüder, HK.2008Impact of exercise on neuroplasticity-related proteins in spinal cord injured humansNeuroscience 153(4):1064-1070Abstract
Suhr, F., Brixus, K., de Marées, M., Bölck, B., Kleinöder, H., Achtzehn, S., Bloch, W., Mester, J.2007Effects of short-term vibration and hypoxia during high-intensity cycling exercise on circulating levels of angiogenic regulators in humans.J Appl Physiol 103(2):474-483Abstract
De Bock, K., Richter, E.A., Russell, A.P., Eijnde, B.O., Derave, W., Ramaekers, M., Koninckx, E., Leger, J., Verhaeghe, J., Hespel, P.2005Exercise in the fasted state facilitates fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid breakdown and stimulates glycogen resynthesis in humansJ Physiol 564:649-660Abstract
Van Schuylenbergh, R., Vanden Eynde, B., Hespel., P.2004Effects of air ventilation during stationary exercise testingEur J Appl Physiol 92:262-266Abstract
Van Schuylenbergh, R., Vanden Eynde, B., Hespel., P.2004Prediction of sprint triathlon performance from laboratory testsEur J Appl Physiol 91(1):94-99Abstract
Reiser, M., Meyer, T., Kindermann, W., Daugs, R.2000Transferability of workload measurements between three different types of ergometerEur J Appl Physiol 82(3):245-249Abstract